Biology 201 Chapter 6

Energy : the capacity to do work.
Kinetic energy: the energy of motion, it used when work is done.
Potential energy: the stored energy, ex. chemical bonds.
Thermodynamics: the study of energy.
Entropy: is disorder in the universe entropy is increasing.
Enthalpy: the total energy stored in all of the bonds in a molecule.
Free energy of molecule: the energy in a molecule that is available to do work.(the energy available to form other bonds)
Oxidation: the loss of electrons (energy )
Reduction: the gain of electrons (energy)
Activation energy: the energy required to distupt existing chemical bonds existing chemical bonds so that new one can be formed.
Exergonic reaction: reaction release energy, delta G is negative.
Endergonic reaction: reaction require the input of energy, delta G is positive.
Catalyst
Enzyme: globular proteins, and they are catalysts of the cell.(protein catalyst in a cell. It lowers activation energy)
Active site of an enzyme: most important part of enzyme.
Substrate
Types of enzyme inhibitors
-competitive: binds in the active site and competes with the substrate.
– noncompetitive: binds somewhere else but changes the activity site.
-irreversible: permanently damages the enzyme.
cofactor
coenzyme
biochemical pathway: series of chemical reactions all involved in one process.
anaerobic
aerobic
Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reaction in a cell.
anabolism: refers to a reaction in which small molecules are combined to form large ones
catabolism: refers to a reaction in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.
Homeotherm: maintained their body temperature internally.
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Poikilotherm: get their body heat from their surroundings.
What is the first and the second law of thermodynamics FIRST LAW
Law of conservation of energy: energy and mater are neither created or destroyed but can change from one form to another….